Health Benefits And Uses Of Magnesium Ascorbate

Magnesium Ascorbate

Clinical Studies
References

 

Magnesium Ascorbate is a non-acidic buffered form of Vitamin C and a source of the essential mineral Magnesium. It is a natural neutral salt has significantly higher gastrointestinal tolerance as they are less irritating and provide for better absorption of both vitamin C and the magnesium.

Magnesium is a mineral necessary for energy metabolism, immune competence, the body's stress response, protein and fat synthesis, neuromuscular transmission, ammonia scavenging and binding of calcium to teeth. It aids in bone growth and is necessary for proper functioning of nerves and muscles.

Magnesium may be beneficial in physical and emotional stress, anxiety, cardiac arrhythmias, chronic fatigue, cramps, asthma, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, fluid retention, migraine and tension headaches, heart attack, high blood pressure, premenstrual tension, restless leg syndrome and osteoporosis. 


 

Published Clinical Studiesclin
Magnesium
Magnesium prophylaxis of menstrual migraine: effects on intracellular magnesium.1
Facchinetti F, Sances G, Borella P, Genazzani AR, Nappi G.
University Centre for Adaptive Disorders and Headache (UCADH), Dept. of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Italy.

The effects of oral Magnesium (Mg) pyrrolidone carboxylic acid were evaluated in 20 patients affected by menstrual migraine, in a double-blind, placebo controlled study. After a two cycles run-in period, the treatment (360 mg/day of Mg or placebo) started on the 15th day of the cycle and continued till the next menses, for two months. Oral Mg was then supplemented in an open design for the next two months. At the 2nd month, the Pain Total Index was decreased by both Placebo and Mg, with patients receiving active drug showing the lowest values (P less than 0.03). The number of days with headache was reduced only in the patients on active drug. Mg treatment also improved premenstrual complaints, as demonstrated by the significant reduction of Menstrual Distress Questionnaire (MDQ) scores. The reduction of PTI and MDQ scores was observed also at the 4th month of treatment, when Mg was supplemented in all the patients. Intracellular Mg++ levels in patients with menstrual migraine were reduced compared to controls. During oral Mg treatment, the Mg++ content of Lymphocytes (LC) and Polymorphonucleated cells (PMN) significantly increased, while no changes in plasma or Red Blood Cells were found. An inverse correlation between PTI and Mg++ content in PMN was demonstrated. These data point to magnesium supplementation as a further means for menstrual migraine prophylaxis, and support the possibility that a lower migraine threshold could be related to magnesium deficiency.

Publication Types:
  • Clinical Trial
  • Controlled Clinical Trial
PMID: 1860787 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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The effects of magnesium physiological supplementation on hyperactivity in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Positive response to magnesium oral loading test.

Starobrat-Hermelin B, Kozielec T.
Department of Family Medicine, Pomeranian Medical Academy, Szczecin, Poland.

Children with ADHD are 'a group at risk' as far as their further emotional and social development and educational possibilities are concerned, and the consequences of the lack of an appropriate therapy appears to be serious. Some of these children do not respond to prevailing therapy methods. It is reported that dietetic factors can play a significant role in the etiology of ADHD syndrome, and magnesium deficiency can help in revealing hyperactivity in children. The aim of our work was to assess the influence of magnesium supplementation on hyperactivity in patients with ADHD. The examination comprised 50 hyperactive children, aged 7-12 years, who fulfilled DSM IV criteria for ADHD syndrome, with recognized deficiency of magnesium in the blood (blood serum and red blood cells) and in hair using atomic absorption spectroscopy. In the period of 6 months those examined regularly took magnesium preparations in a dose of about 200 mg/day. 30 of those examined with ADHD showed coexisting disorders specific to developmental age, and 20 of them showed disruptive behaviour. The control group consisted of 25 children with ADHD and magnesium deficiency, who were treated in a standard way, without magnesium preparations. 15 members of this group showed coexisting disorders specific for developmental age, and 10 members showed disruptive behaviour. Hyperactivity was assessed with the aid of psychometric scales: the Conners Rating Scale for Parents and Teachers, Wender's Scale of Behavior and the Quotient of Development to Freedom from Distractibility. In the group of children given 6 months of magnesium supplementation, independently of other mental disorders coexisting with hyperactivity, an increase in magnesium contents in hair and a significant decrease of hyperactivity of those examined has been achieved, compared to their clinical state before supplementation and compared to the control group which had not been treated with magnesium.

Publication Types:
  • Clinical Trial
  • Controlled Clinical Trial
PMID: 9368236 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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Clinical symptoms of mitral valve prolapse are related to hypomagnesemia and attenuated by magnesium supplementation.
Lichodziejewska B, Klos J, Rezler J, Grudzka K, Dluzniewska M, Budaj A, Ceremuzynski L.
Department of Cardiology, Postgraduate Medical School, Grochowski Hospital, Warsaw, Poland.

Mitral valve prolapse syndrome (MVP) is a frequent disorder characterized by a number of complaints which lessen the quality of life. The pathogenesis of MVP symptoms has not been fully elucidated. Hyperadrenergic activity and magnesium deficiency have been suggested. This study was designed to verify the concept that heavily symptomatic MVP is accompanied by hypomagnesemia and to elucidate whether magnesium supplementation alleviates the symptoms and influences adrenergic activity. We assessed serum magnesium in 141 subjects with heavily symptomatic primary MVP and in 40 healthy controls. Decreased serum magnesium was found in 60% of patients and in 5% of controls (p <0.0001). Patients with low serum magnesium were subjected to magnesium or placebo supplementation in a double-blind, crossover fashion. Typical symptoms of MVP (n = 13), intensity of anxiety, and daily excretion of catecholamines were determined. After 5 weeks, the mean number of symptoms per patient decreased from 10.4 +/- 2.1 to 5.6 +/- 2.5 (p <0.0001), and a significant reduction in weakness, chest pain, dyspnea, palpitations, and anxiety was observed. Increased noradrenaline excretion before and after magnesium was seen in 63% and 17% of patients, respectively (p <0.01). Mean daily excretion of noradrenaline and adrenaline was significantly diminished after magnesium. It is concluded that many patients with heavily symptomatic MVP have low serum magnesium, and supplementation of this ion leads to improvement in most symptoms along with a decrease in catecholamine excretion.

Publication Types:
  • Clinical Trial
  • Randomized Controlled Trial
PMID: 9070556 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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Oral magnesium successfully relieves premenstrual mood changes.4
Facchinetti F, Borella P, Sances G, Fioroni L, Nappi RE, Genazzani AR.
University Centre for Adaptive Disorders and Headache, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Pavia, Italy.

Reduced magnesium (Mg) levels have been reported in women affected by premenstrual syndrome (PMS). To evaluate the effects of an oral Mg preparation on premenstrual symptoms, we studied, by a double-blind, randomized design, 32 women (24-39 years old) with PMS confirmed by the Moos Menstrual Distress Questionnaire. After 2 months of baseline recording, the subjects were randomly assigned to placebo or Mg for two cycles. In the next two cycles, both groups received Mg. Magnesium pyrrolidone carboxylic acid (360 mg Mg) or placebo was administered three times a day, from the 15th day of the menstrual cycle to the onset of menstrual flow. Blood samples for Mg measurement were drawn premenstrually, during the baseline period, and in the second and fourth months of treatment. The Menstrual Distress Questionnaire score of the cluster "pain" was significantly reduced during the second month in both groups, whereas Mg treatment significantly affected both the total Menstrual Distress Questionnaire score and the cluster "negative affect." In the second month, the women assigned to treatment showed a significant increase in Mg in lymphocytes and polymorphonuclear cells, whereas no changes were observed in plasma and erythrocytes. These data indicate that Mg supplementation could represent an effective treatment of premenstrual symptoms related to mood changes.

Publication Types:
  • Clinical Trial
  • Randomized Controlled Trial
PMID: 2067759 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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Should magnesium therapy be considered for the treatment of coronary heart disease? II. Epidemiological evidence in outpatients with and without coronary heart disease.

Lasserre B, Spoerri M, Moullet V, Theubet MP.
Groupe Medical du Petit-Lancy, Switzerland.

In an epidemiological and follow-up survey on 712 patients, 52 subjects with proven ischaemic heart disease were matched with and compared to 52 coronary-prone subjects with similar major cardiovascular risk factors (high-risk controls, HR) as well as to 52 patients at low cardiovascular risk (low-risk controls, LR). HR and LR patients were all free of overt ischaemic heart disease. Both the average daily dietary magnesium intake and the 24 h renal magnesium output were slightly higher in HR as compared to LR and ischaemic heart disease patients. No difference could be observed between the three groups with respect to serum magnesium levels, whereas erythrocyte magnesium levels were lower in ischaemic heart disease patients than in LR (P = 0.089) and to HR (P = 0.042). Ischaemic heart disease patients below 60 years had significantly lower erythrocyte magnesium levels than older (> 60 years) ischaemic heart disease patients. Lower erythrocyte magnesium levels in ischaemic heart disease patients were also associated with an increased incidence of cardiac events in the follow-up period and with a more unfavourable outcome. A pilot phase 6 month open trial of oral magnesium supplementation in nine ischaemic heart disease patients with low erythrocyte magnesium levels led to significant increases of erythrocyte magnesium in these patients, and to an impressive decrease of anginal attacks and nitrate consumption, as well as to a lesser degree of ST segment depression on surface ECG obtained at exercise testing in seven patients.

Publication Types:
  • Clinical Trial
  • Randomized Controlled Trial
PMID: 7999529 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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Randomised, cross-over, placebo controlled trial of magnesium citrate in the treatment of chronic persistent leg cramps.
Roffe C, Sills S, Crome P, Jones P.
Department of Geriatric Medicine, Keele University, Staffordshire, UK. christine.roffe@nsch-tr.wmids.nhs.uk

BACKGROUND: Nocturnal leg cramps are common and distressing. The only treatment of proven effectiveness is quinine, but this has a number of side effects. Magnesium salts have been shown to reduce leg cramp distress in pregnancy. This study tests whether magnesium citrate is effective in the treatment of leg cramps in non-pregnant individuals by conducting in a randomised, double-blind, cross-over placebo-controlled trial. MATERIAL/METHODS: Volunteers suffering regular leg cramps were recruited. Magnesium citrate equivalent to 300 mg magnesium and matching placebo were given for 6 weeks each. The number of cramps recorded in the cramp diary during the final 4 weeks of magnesium and placebo treatment, severity and duration of cramps and the participants' subjective assessment of effectiveness were analysed. RESULTS: In subjects who started with placebo (n=29) the median (95% CI) number of cramps was 9 (6-17) on placebo and 5 (4-8) on magnesium. For the group starting with magnesium (n=17) the median no of cramps was 9 (5-13) on magnesium and 8 (4-14) on placebo. There was no significant carry-over effect (p=0.88), but a highly significant period effect (p=0.008). There was a trend towards less cramps on magnesium (p=0.07). There was no difference in cramp severity and duration between the groups. Significantly more subjects thought that the treatment had helped after magnesium than after placebo 36 (78%) and 25 (54%) respectively, (p=0.03). Diarrhoea was recorded as a side effect of magnesium. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that magnesium may be effective in treatment of nocturnal leg cramps. Further evaluation is recommended.

Publication Types:
  • Clinical Trial
  • Randomized Controlled Trial
PMID: 12011773 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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Investigation of the effect of short-term change in dietary magnesium intake in asthma.7
Hill J, Micklewright A, Lewis S, Britton J.
Division of Respiratory Medicine, City Hospital, Nottingham, UK.

Epidemiological evidence suggests that a low dietary intake of magnesium is associated with impaired lung function, bronchial hyperreactivity and wheezing. This study was designed to investigate whether short-term alterations of dietary magnesium intake have an effect on the clinical control of asthma. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study, 17 asthmatic subjects adhered to a low magnesium diet for two periods of 3 weeks, preceded and separated by a 1 week run-in/wash-out, in which they took either placebo or magnesium (400 mg x day(-1)) tablet supplementation. Forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and the provocative dose of methacholine required to cause a 20% fall in FEV1 from baseline (PD20,FEV1) were measured at the beginning and end of each treatment period, and variation in peak expiratory flow (PEF) rate, bronchodilator use and symptom scores recorded throughout. Asthma symptom scores were significantly lower during the magnesium treatment period, the median (95% confidence interval) difference from placebo being 3.8 (0.5-7.0) symptom points per 7 days (p=0.02). However, there was no significant improvement in FEV1, PD20,FEV1, log amplitude percentage mean PEF variation or bronchodilator use during magnesium supplementation. A high magnesium intake was associated with improvement in symptom scores, though not in objective measures of airflow or airway reactivity, in these stable asthmatic subjects.

Publication Types:
  • Clinical Trial
  • Randomized Controlled Trial
PMID: 9387944 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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Oral magnesium supplementation in insulin-requiring Type 2 diabetic patients.8
de Valk HW, Verkaaik R, van Rijn HJ, Geerdink RA, Struyvenberg A.
Department of Internal Medicine, University Hospital, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

Oral magnesium (Mg) supplementation can improve insulin sensitivity and secretion in patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). We studied the effect of Mg supplementation on glycaemic control, blood pressure, and plasma lipids in insulin-requiring patients with Type 2 DM. Fifty moderately controlled patients were randomized to 15 mmol Mg or placebo daily for 3 months. Plasma Mg, glucose, HbA1c, lipids, erythrocyte Mg, Mg and glucose concentrations in 24-h urine, and systolic and diastolic pressure were measured before and after 3 months treatment. Plasma Mg concentration was higher after supplementation than after placebo (0.82 +/- 0.07 vs 0.78 +/- 0.08 mmol l(-1), p < 0.05), as was Mg excretion (5.5 +/- 1.9 vs 3.7 +/- 1.4 mmol 24 h(-1), p = 0.004) but erythrocyte Mg concentrations were similar. No significant differences were found in glycaemic control (glucose: 10.7 +/- 3.8 vs 11.6 +/- 6.2 mmol l(-1), p = 0.8; HbA1c: 8.9 +/- 1.6 vs 9.1 +/- 1.2%, p = 0.8), lipids or blood pressure. On-treatment analysis (34 patients: 18 on Mg, 16 on placebo) yielded similar results. An increase in plasma Mg concentration irrespective of medication was associated with a tendency to a decrease in diastolic pressure (increased plasma Mg vs no increase: -4.0 +/- 10.1 vs +2.5 +/- 12.0 mmHg, p = 0.059). Three months' oral Mg supplementation of insulin-requiring patients with Type 2 DM increased plasma Mg concentration and urinary Mg excretion but had no effect on glycaemic control or plasma lipid concentrations.

Publication Types:
  • Clinical Trial
  • Randomized Controlled Trial
PMID: 9632126 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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Nutritional factors for stroke and major cardiovascular diseases: international epidemiological comparison of dietary prevention.

Yamori Y, Nara Y, Mizushima S, Sawamura M, Horie R.
Kyoto University, Japan.

OBJECTIVE: To assess the relationship of biological markers of dietary factors with blood pressure (BP) (Core Study) and with age-adjusted mortality rates of stroke and ischemic heart disease (Complete Study) in the WHO Cardiovascular Diseases and Alimentary Comparison (CARDIAC) Study, a multicentre epidemiological study in 55 centres of 24 countries as of 1993. DESIGN AND METHODS: From each population, 100 men and 100 women aged 48 to 56 years were randomly selected for BP measurement, 24-hour urine collection, blood tests, etc. Various biological dietary markers from the urine and blood were analysed centrally. Age-adjusted mortality rates from stroke and ischemic heart disease were obtained from 19 centres in 14 countries. RESULTS: Core Study: Cross-centre analyses, using simple linear regression, showed a positive relationship of body mass index to systolic BP and diastolic BP in men (p < 0.001) and women (p < 0.05). There were also strong positive correlations between 24-hour sodium excretion rates and both systolic and diastolic BP (both p < 0.01) in men. An inverse relationship was found between the 24-hour magnesium/creatinine excretion ratio and diastolic BP (p < 0.05) in men. Complete Study: Stroke mortality was significantly positively related to the 24-hour sodium excretion rate in men (p < 0.01) and to the sodium/potassium ratio in both sexes (p < 0.05). It showed an inverse relationship of serum phospholipid with serum total cholesterol (p < 0.05) and a positive relationship with arachidonic acid. A strong positive relationship between serum cholesterol level and ischemic heart disease (p < 0.001) was observed in men. The serum phospholipid n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) level and the PUFA to saturated fatty acid (SFA) ratio were significantly inversely correlated with ischemic heart disease. The 24-hour taurine excretion rate, a biological marker of seafood protein intake, showed a significant inverse correlation with ischemic heart disease in both sexes (p < 0.01). CONCLUSION: The Core Study revealed a consistent adverse effect of high body mass index and excess salt intake on BP and a beneficial effect of magnesium on BP. The Complete Study demonstrated an adverse effect of high sodium, low potassium intake and hypercholesterolemia on stroke; and an adverse effect of cholesterolemia as well as beneficial effects of serum phospholipid n-3 PUFA, PUFA/SFA and the taurine excretion rate on death from ischemic heart disease.

Publication Types:
  • Clinical Trial
  • Multicenter Study
  • Randomized Controlled Trial
PMID: 7919085 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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Referencesref
  1. Shils M, Olson A, Shike M. Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease. 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Lea and Febiger, 1994.
  2. Young DS. Effects of Drugs on Clinical Laboratory Tests 4th ed. Washington: AACC Press, 1995.
  3. Hill J, Micklewright A, Lewis S, et al. Investigation of the effect of short-term change in dietary magnesium intake in asthma. Eur Respir J 1997;10(10):2225-9.
  4. Mauskop A, Altura BT, Cracco RQ, et al. Deficiency in serum ionized magnesium but not total magnesium in patients with migraines. Possible role of ICa2+/IMg2+ ratio. Headache 1993;33(3):135-8.
  5. Yamori Y, Nara Y, Mizushima S, et al. Nutritional factors for stroke and major cardiovascular diseases: international epidemiological comparison of dietary prevention. Health Rep 1994;6(1):22-7.
  6. Lasserre B, Spoerri M, Moullet V, et al. Should magnesium therapy be considered for the treatment of coronary heart disease? II. Epidemiological evidence in outpatients with and without coronary heart disease. Magnes Res 1994;7(2):145-53.
  7. Durlach J, Bac P, Durlach V, et al. Magnesium status and ageing: an update. Magnes Res 1998;11(1):25-42.
  8. Micromedex Healthcare Series. Englewood, CO: MICROMEDEX Inc.
  9. Witteman JC, Grobbee DE, Derkx FH, et al. Reduction of blood pressure with oral magnesium supplementation in women with mild to moderate hypertension. Am J Clin Nutr 1994 60(1):129-35.
  10. Covington TR, et al. Handbook of Nonprescription Drugs. Washington, DC: Am Pharmaceutical Assn, 1996.
  11. Mauskop A, Altura BT, Cracco RQ, et al. Intravenous magnesium sulfate relieves cluster headaches in patients with low serum ionized magnesium levels. Headache 1995;35(10):597-600.
  12. Whitney E, Cataldo CB, Rolfes SR, eds. Understanding Normal and Clinical Nutrition. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, 1998.
  13. Meacham SL, Taper LJ, Volpe SL. Effect of boron supplementation on blood and urinary calcium, magnesium, and phosphorus, and urinary boron in athletic and sedentary women. Am J Clin Nutr 1995;61:341-5.
  14. Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI's), Institute Med of Natl Acad Sci, 1997.
  15. Martindale W. Martindale the Extra Pharmacopoeia. Pharmaceutical Press, 1999.
  16. Scheen AJ. Perspective in the treatment of insulin resistance. Hum Reprod 1997;12(Suppl 1):63-71.
  17. Preuss HG, Gondal JA, Lieberman S. Association of macronutrients and energy intake with hypertension. J Am Coll Nutr 1996;15(1):21-35.
  18. de Valk HW, Verkaaik R, van Rijn HJ, et al. Oral magnesium supplementation in insulin-requiring Type 2 diabetic patients. Diabet Med 1998;15(6):503-7.
  19. Lima M, Cruz T, Pousada JC, et al. The effect of magnesium supplementation in increasing doses on the control of type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 1998;21(5):682-6.
  20. McKevoy GK, ed. AHFS Drug Information. Bethesda, MD: American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, 1998.

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