Astaxanthin: Bioavailability and pharmacokinetics
"…The first thorough bioavailability study of Astaxanthin in humans was reported at the turn of the millennium (Osterlie et al., 2000).
Appearance, pharmacokinetics, and distribution of Astaxanthin E/Z and R/S isomers in plasma and lipoprotein fractions were studied in three middle-aged male volunteers (37-43 years) after ingestion of a single meal containing a 100 mg dose of synthetic Astaxanthin.
The Astaxanthin source consists of 74% all-E, 9% 9Z, 17% 13Z, with a ratio of 1:2:1 between the 3R, 3’R form, 3R, 3’S form, and 3S, 3’S stereoisomers. The plasma Astaxanthin concentration-time curves were measured over 72 hours. Maximum levels of Astaxanthin (1.3mg/L) were reached 6.7 hrs after administration, and the plasma Astaxanthin elimination half-life was 21 hrs.
13Z-Astaxanthin was selectively accumulated in the plasma, but no selectivity was found for any of the stereoisomers. Astaxanthin was present mainly in very low-density lipoproteins containing chylomicrons (VLDL/CM; 36-64% of total Astaxanthin), whereas low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) contained 29% and 24% of total Astaxanthin, respectively…”
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