Magnesium Ascorbate is a non-acidic buffered form of
Vitamin C and a source of the essential mineral Magnesium. It is a
natural neutral salt has significantly higher gastrointestinal
tolerance as they are less irritating and provide for better absorption
of both vitamin C and the magnesium.
Magnesium is a mineral necessary for energy
metabolism, immune competence, the body's stress response, protein and
fat synthesis, neuromuscular transmission, ammonia scavenging and
binding of calcium to teeth. It aids in bone growth and is necessary
for proper functioning of nerves and muscles.
Magnesium may be beneficial in physical and
emotional stress, anxiety, cardiac arrhythmias, chronic fatigue,
cramps, asthma, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, fluid retention,
migraine and tension headaches, heart attack, high blood pressure,
premenstrual tension, restless leg syndrome and osteoporosis.
Published Clinical Studiesclin
Magnesium prophylaxis of menstrual migraine: effects on intracellular magnesium.1
Facchinetti F, Sances G, Borella P, Genazzani AR, Nappi G.
University Centre for Adaptive Disorders and Headache (UCADH), Dept. of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Italy.
The effects of oral Magnesium (Mg) pyrrolidone
carboxylic acid were evaluated in 20 patients affected by menstrual
migraine, in a double-blind, placebo controlled study. After a two
cycles run-in period, the treatment (360 mg/day of Mg or placebo)
started on the 15th day of the cycle and continued till the next
menses, for two months. Oral Mg was then supplemented in an open design
for the next two months. At the 2nd month, the Pain Total Index was
decreased by both Placebo and Mg, with patients receiving active drug
showing the lowest values (P less than 0.03). The number of days with
headache was reduced only in the patients on active drug. Mg treatment
also improved premenstrual complaints, as demonstrated by the
significant reduction of Menstrual Distress Questionnaire (MDQ) scores.
The reduction of PTI and MDQ scores was observed also at the 4th month
of treatment, when Mg was supplemented in all the patients.
Intracellular Mg++ levels in patients with menstrual migraine were
reduced compared to controls. During oral Mg treatment, the Mg++
content of Lymphocytes (LC) and Polymorphonucleated cells (PMN)
significantly increased, while no changes in plasma or Red Blood Cells
were found. An inverse correlation between PTI and Mg++ content in PMN
was demonstrated. These data point to magnesium supplementation as a
further means for menstrual migraine prophylaxis, and support the
possibility that a lower migraine threshold could be related to
PMID: 1860787 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
The effects of magnesium physiological supplementation on hyperactivity
in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).
Positive response to magnesium oral loading test.
Starobrat-Hermelin B, Kozielec T.
Department of Family Medicine, Pomeranian Medical Academy, Szczecin, Poland.
Children with ADHD are 'a group at risk' as far as
their further emotional and social development and educational
possibilities are concerned, and the consequences of the lack of an
appropriate therapy appears to be serious. Some of these children do
not respond to prevailing therapy methods. It is reported that dietetic
factors can play a significant role in the etiology of ADHD syndrome,
and magnesium deficiency can help in revealing hyperactivity in
children. The aim of our work was to assess the influence of magnesium
supplementation on hyperactivity in patients with ADHD. The examination
comprised 50 hyperactive children, aged 7-12 years, who fulfilled DSM
IV criteria for ADHD syndrome, with recognized deficiency of magnesium
in the blood (blood serum and red blood cells) and in hair using atomic
absorption spectroscopy. In the period of 6 months those examined
regularly took magnesium preparations in a dose of about 200 mg/day. 30
of those examined with ADHD showed coexisting disorders specific to
developmental age, and 20 of them showed disruptive behaviour. The
control group consisted of 25 children with ADHD and magnesium
deficiency, who were treated in a standard way, without magnesium
preparations. 15 members of this group showed coexisting disorders
specific for developmental age, and 10 members showed disruptive
behaviour. Hyperactivity was assessed with the aid of psychometric
scales: the Conners Rating Scale for Parents and Teachers, Wender's
Scale of Behavior and the Quotient of Development to Freedom from
Distractibility. In the group of children given 6 months of magnesium
supplementation, independently of other mental disorders coexisting
with hyperactivity, an increase in magnesium contents in hair and a
significant decrease of hyperactivity of those examined has been
achieved, compared to their clinical state before supplementation and
compared to the control group which had not been treated with magnesium.
PMID: 9368236 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Clinical symptoms of mitral valve prolapse are related to hypomagnesemia and attenuated by magnesium supplementation.
Lichodziejewska B, Klos J, Rezler J, Grudzka K, Dluzniewska M, Budaj A, Ceremuzynski L.
Department of Cardiology, Postgraduate Medical School, Grochowski Hospital, Warsaw, Poland.
Mitral valve prolapse syndrome (MVP) is a frequent
disorder characterized by a number of complaints which lessen the
quality of life. The pathogenesis of MVP symptoms has not been fully
elucidated. Hyperadrenergic activity and magnesium deficiency have been
suggested. This study was designed to verify the concept that heavily
symptomatic MVP is accompanied by hypomagnesemia and to elucidate
whether magnesium supplementation alleviates the symptoms and
influences adrenergic activity. We assessed serum magnesium in 141
subjects with heavily symptomatic primary MVP and in 40 healthy
controls. Decreased serum magnesium was found in 60% of patients and in
5% of controls (p <0.0001). Patients with low serum magnesium were
subjected to magnesium or placebo supplementation in a double-blind,
crossover fashion. Typical symptoms of MVP (n = 13), intensity of
anxiety, and daily excretion of catecholamines were determined. After 5
weeks, the mean number of symptoms per patient decreased from 10.4 +/-
2.1 to 5.6 +/- 2.5 (p <0.0001), and a significant reduction in
weakness, chest pain, dyspnea, palpitations, and anxiety was observed.
Increased noradrenaline excretion before and after magnesium was seen
in 63% and 17% of patients, respectively (p <0.01). Mean daily
excretion of noradrenaline and adrenaline was significantly diminished
after magnesium. It is concluded that many patients with heavily
symptomatic MVP have low serum magnesium, and supplementation of this
ion leads to improvement in most symptoms along with a decrease in
PMID: 9070556 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Oral magnesium successfully relieves premenstrual mood changes.4
Facchinetti F, Borella P, Sances G, Fioroni L, Nappi RE, Genazzani AR.
University Centre for Adaptive Disorders and Headache, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Pavia, Italy.
Reduced magnesium (Mg) levels have been reported in
women affected by premenstrual syndrome (PMS). To evaluate the effects
of an oral Mg preparation on premenstrual symptoms, we studied, by a
double-blind, randomized design, 32 women (24-39 years old) with PMS
confirmed by the Moos Menstrual Distress Questionnaire. After 2 months
of baseline recording, the subjects were randomly assigned to placebo
or Mg for two cycles. In the next two cycles, both groups received Mg.
Magnesium pyrrolidone carboxylic acid (360 mg Mg) or placebo was
administered three times a day, from the 15th day of the menstrual
cycle to the onset of menstrual flow. Blood samples for Mg measurement
were drawn premenstrually, during the baseline period, and in the
second and fourth months of treatment. The Menstrual Distress
Questionnaire score of the cluster "pain" was significantly reduced
during the second month in both groups, whereas Mg treatment
significantly affected both the total Menstrual Distress Questionnaire
score and the cluster "negative affect." In the second month, the women
assigned to treatment showed a significant increase in Mg in
lymphocytes and polymorphonuclear cells, whereas no changes were
observed in plasma and erythrocytes. These data indicate that Mg
supplementation could represent an effective treatment of premenstrual
symptoms related to mood changes.
PMID: 2067759 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Should magnesium therapy be considered for the treatment of coronary
heart disease? II. Epidemiological evidence in outpatients with and
without coronary heart disease.
Lasserre B, Spoerri M, Moullet V, Theubet MP.
Groupe Medical du Petit-Lancy, Switzerland.
In an epidemiological and follow-up survey on 712
patients, 52 subjects with proven ischaemic heart disease were matched
with and compared to 52 coronary-prone subjects with similar major
cardiovascular risk factors (high-risk controls, HR) as well as to 52
patients at low cardiovascular risk (low-risk controls, LR). HR and LR
patients were all free of overt ischaemic heart disease. Both the
average daily dietary magnesium intake and the 24 h renal magnesium
output were slightly higher in HR as compared to LR and ischaemic heart
disease patients. No difference could be observed between the three
groups with respect to serum magnesium levels, whereas erythrocyte
magnesium levels were lower in ischaemic heart disease patients than in
LR (P = 0.089) and to HR (P = 0.042). Ischaemic heart disease patients
below 60 years had significantly lower erythrocyte magnesium levels
than older (> 60 years) ischaemic heart disease patients. Lower
erythrocyte magnesium levels in ischaemic heart disease patients were
also associated with an increased incidence of cardiac events in the
follow-up period and with a more unfavourable outcome. A pilot phase 6
month open trial of oral magnesium supplementation in nine ischaemic
heart disease patients with low erythrocyte magnesium levels led to
significant increases of erythrocyte magnesium in these patients, and
to an impressive decrease of anginal attacks and nitrate consumption,
as well as to a lesser degree of ST segment depression on surface ECG
obtained at exercise testing in seven patients.
PMID: 7999529 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Randomised, cross-over, placebo controlled trial of magnesium citrate in the treatment of chronic persistent leg cramps.
Roffe C, Sills S, Crome P, Jones P.
Department of Geriatric Medicine, Keele University, Staffordshire, UK. email@example.com
BACKGROUND: Nocturnal leg cramps are common and
distressing. The only treatment of proven effectiveness is quinine, but
this has a number of side effects. Magnesium salts have been shown to
reduce leg cramp distress in pregnancy. This study tests whether
magnesium citrate is effective in the treatment of leg cramps in
non-pregnant individuals by conducting in a randomised, double-blind,
cross-over placebo-controlled trial. MATERIAL/METHODS: Volunteers
suffering regular leg cramps were recruited. Magnesium citrate
equivalent to 300 mg magnesium and matching placebo were given for 6
weeks each. The number of cramps recorded in the cramp diary during the
final 4 weeks of magnesium and placebo treatment, severity and duration
of cramps and the participants' subjective assessment of effectiveness
were analysed. RESULTS: In subjects who started with placebo (n=29) the
median (95% CI) number of cramps was 9 (6-17) on placebo and 5 (4-8) on
magnesium. For the group starting with magnesium (n=17) the median no
of cramps was 9 (5-13) on magnesium and 8 (4-14) on placebo. There was
no significant carry-over effect (p=0.88), but a highly significant
period effect (p=0.008). There was a trend towards less cramps on
magnesium (p=0.07). There was no difference in cramp severity and
duration between the groups. Significantly more subjects thought that
the treatment had helped after magnesium than after placebo 36 (78%)
and 25 (54%) respectively, (p=0.03). Diarrhoea was recorded as a side
effect of magnesium. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that magnesium
may be effective in treatment of nocturnal leg cramps. Further
evaluation is recommended.
PMID: 12011773 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Investigation of the effect of short-term change in dietary magnesium intake in asthma.7
Hill J, Micklewright A, Lewis S, Britton J.
Division of Respiratory Medicine, City Hospital, Nottingham, UK.
Epidemiological evidence suggests that a low dietary
intake of magnesium is associated with impaired lung function,
bronchial hyperreactivity and wheezing. This study was designed to
investigate whether short-term alterations of dietary magnesium intake
have an effect on the clinical control of asthma. In a randomized,
double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study, 17 asthmatic
subjects adhered to a low magnesium diet for two periods of 3 weeks,
preceded and separated by a 1 week run-in/wash-out, in which they took
either placebo or magnesium (400 mg x day(-1)) tablet supplementation.
Forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and the provocative dose
of methacholine required to cause a 20% fall in FEV1 from baseline
(PD20,FEV1) were measured at the beginning and end of each treatment
period, and variation in peak expiratory flow (PEF) rate,
bronchodilator use and symptom scores recorded throughout. Asthma
symptom scores were significantly lower during the magnesium treatment
period, the median (95% confidence interval) difference from placebo
being 3.8 (0.5-7.0) symptom points per 7 days (p=0.02). However, there
was no significant improvement in FEV1, PD20,FEV1, log amplitude
percentage mean PEF variation or bronchodilator use during magnesium
supplementation. A high magnesium intake was associated with
improvement in symptom scores, though not in objective measures of
airflow or airway reactivity, in these stable asthmatic subjects.
PMID: 9387944 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Oral magnesium supplementation in insulin-requiring Type 2 diabetic patients.8
de Valk HW, Verkaaik R, van Rijn HJ, Geerdink RA, Struyvenberg A.
Department of Internal Medicine, University Hospital, Utrecht, The Netherlands.
Oral magnesium (Mg) supplementation can improve
insulin sensitivity and secretion in patients with Type 2 diabetes
mellitus (DM). We studied the effect of Mg supplementation on glycaemic
control, blood pressure, and plasma lipids in insulin-requiring
patients with Type 2 DM. Fifty moderately controlled patients were
randomized to 15 mmol Mg or placebo daily for 3 months. Plasma Mg,
glucose, HbA1c, lipids, erythrocyte Mg, Mg and glucose concentrations
in 24-h urine, and systolic and diastolic pressure were measured before
and after 3 months treatment. Plasma Mg concentration was higher after
supplementation than after placebo (0.82 +/- 0.07 vs 0.78 +/- 0.08 mmol
l(-1), p < 0.05), as was Mg excretion (5.5 +/- 1.9 vs 3.7 +/- 1.4
mmol 24 h(-1), p = 0.004) but erythrocyte Mg concentrations were
similar. No significant differences were found in glycaemic control
(glucose: 10.7 +/- 3.8 vs 11.6 +/- 6.2 mmol l(-1), p = 0.8; HbA1c: 8.9
+/- 1.6 vs 9.1 +/- 1.2%, p = 0.8), lipids or blood pressure.
On-treatment analysis (34 patients: 18 on Mg, 16 on placebo) yielded
similar results. An increase in plasma Mg concentration irrespective of
medication was associated with a tendency to a decrease in diastolic
pressure (increased plasma Mg vs no increase: -4.0 +/- 10.1 vs +2.5 +/-
12.0 mmHg, p = 0.059). Three months' oral Mg supplementation of
insulin-requiring patients with Type 2 DM increased plasma Mg
concentration and urinary Mg excretion but had no effect on glycaemic
control or plasma lipid concentrations.
PMID: 9632126 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Nutritional factors for stroke and major cardiovascular diseases:
international epidemiological comparison of dietary prevention.
Yamori Y, Nara Y, Mizushima S, Sawamura M, Horie R.
Kyoto University, Japan.
OBJECTIVE: To assess the relationship of biological
markers of dietary factors with blood pressure (BP) (Core Study) and
with age-adjusted mortality rates of stroke and ischemic heart disease
(Complete Study) in the WHO Cardiovascular Diseases and Alimentary
Comparison (CARDIAC) Study, a multicentre epidemiological study in 55
centres of 24 countries as of 1993. DESIGN AND METHODS: From each
population, 100 men and 100 women aged 48 to 56 years were randomly
selected for BP measurement, 24-hour urine collection, blood tests,
etc. Various biological dietary markers from the urine and blood were
analysed centrally. Age-adjusted mortality rates from stroke and
ischemic heart disease were obtained from 19 centres in 14 countries.
RESULTS: Core Study: Cross-centre analyses, using simple linear
regression, showed a positive relationship of body mass index to
systolic BP and diastolic BP in men (p < 0.001) and women (p <
0.05). There were also strong positive correlations between 24-hour
sodium excretion rates and both systolic and diastolic BP (both p <
0.01) in men. An inverse relationship was found between the 24-hour
magnesium/creatinine excretion ratio and diastolic BP (p < 0.05) in
men. Complete Study: Stroke mortality was significantly positively
related to the 24-hour sodium excretion rate in men (p < 0.01) and
to the sodium/potassium ratio in both sexes (p < 0.05). It showed an
inverse relationship of serum phospholipid with serum total cholesterol
(p < 0.05) and a positive relationship with arachidonic acid. A
strong positive relationship between serum cholesterol level and
ischemic heart disease (p < 0.001) was observed in men. The serum
phospholipid n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) level and the PUFA
to saturated fatty acid (SFA) ratio were significantly inversely
correlated with ischemic heart disease. The 24-hour taurine excretion
rate, a biological marker of seafood protein intake, showed a
significant inverse correlation with ischemic heart disease in both
sexes (p < 0.01). CONCLUSION: The Core Study revealed a consistent
adverse effect of high body mass index and excess salt intake on BP and
a beneficial effect of magnesium on BP. The Complete Study demonstrated
an adverse effect of high sodium, low potassium intake and
hypercholesterolemia on stroke; and an adverse effect of
cholesterolemia as well as beneficial effects of serum phospholipid n-3
PUFA, PUFA/SFA and the taurine excretion rate on death from ischemic
PMID: 7919085 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
back to top
Shils M, Olson A, Shike M. Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease. 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Lea and Febiger, 1994.
Young DS. Effects of Drugs on Clinical Laboratory Tests 4th ed. Washington: AACC Press, 1995.
J, Micklewright A, Lewis S, et al. Investigation of the effect of
short-term change in dietary magnesium intake in asthma. Eur Respir J
A, Altura BT, Cracco RQ, et al. Deficiency in serum ionized magnesium
but not total magnesium in patients with migraines. Possible role of
ICa2+/IMg2+ ratio. Headache 1993;33(3):135-8.
Y, Nara Y, Mizushima S, et al. Nutritional factors for stroke and major
cardiovascular diseases: international epidemiological comparison of
dietary prevention. Health Rep 1994;6(1):22-7.
B, Spoerri M, Moullet V, et al. Should magnesium therapy be considered
for the treatment of coronary heart disease? II. Epidemiological
evidence in outpatients with and without coronary heart disease. Magnes
Durlach J, Bac P, Durlach V, et al. Magnesium status and ageing: an update. Magnes Res 1998;11(1):25-42.
Micromedex Healthcare Series. Englewood, CO: MICROMEDEX Inc.
JC, Grobbee DE, Derkx FH, et al. Reduction of blood pressure with oral
magnesium supplementation in women with mild to moderate hypertension.
Am J Clin Nutr 1994 60(1):129-35.
Covington TR, et al. Handbook of Nonprescription Drugs. Washington, DC: Am Pharmaceutical Assn, 1996.
A, Altura BT, Cracco RQ, et al. Intravenous magnesium sulfate relieves
cluster headaches in patients with low serum ionized magnesium levels.
Whitney E, Cataldo CB, Rolfes SR, eds. Understanding Normal and Clinical Nutrition. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, 1998.
SL, Taper LJ, Volpe SL. Effect of boron supplementation on blood and
urinary calcium, magnesium, and phosphorus, and urinary boron in
athletic and sedentary women. Am J Clin Nutr 1995;61:341-5.
Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI's), Institute Med of Natl Acad Sci, 1997.
Martindale W. Martindale the Extra Pharmacopoeia. Pharmaceutical Press, 1999.
Scheen AJ. Perspective in the treatment of insulin resistance. Hum Reprod 1997;12(Suppl 1):63-71.
HG, Gondal JA, Lieberman S. Association of macronutrients and energy
intake with hypertension. J Am Coll Nutr 1996;15(1):21-35.
Valk HW, Verkaaik R, van Rijn HJ, et al. Oral magnesium supplementation
in insulin-requiring Type 2 diabetic patients. Diabet Med
M, Cruz T, Pousada JC, et al. The effect of magnesium supplementation
in increasing doses on the control of type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care
McKevoy GK, ed. AHFS Drug Information. Bethesda, MD: American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, 1998.